18 August 2014
In this image from July, Christians fleeing the violence in Mosul sleep inside Sacred Heart of Jesus Chaldean Church in Telkaif, Iraq. For some, that was the beginning of a long and dangerous journey. Last week, the first Christian refugees began arriving in Jordan. (photo: CNS/Reuters)
Christian refugees are beginning to pour into Jordan, describing the world they left behind:
The first Iraqi Christians fleeing Islamic State militants reached the safety of Jordan, helped by King Abdullah II and Catholic aid groups.
“Our money has run out,” said an Iraqi Catholic woman, Um Muwataz, as tears streamed down her face.
“The Islamic State put a big red Arabic letter ’N’ on our home, claiming the house as their property. We had no other choice but to flee, first to the northern Kurdish city of Irbil and now here to Jordan. We’ve spent our last penny,” the former teacher said, her body tensing.
“N” is the first letter of an Arabic word for Christian, “Nasrani” or Nazarene.
“Never in my life could I imagine such a thing happening to us, Christians,” she told Catholic News Service.
Um Muwataz and her family of four managed to fly to Amman from Irbil with about 100 Iraqi Christians from Mosul, Qaraqosh, and surrounding Christian villages, beginning 13 August.
But she said she was concerned for her married daughter and the rest of the family stuck in Irbil, because the young woman’s 6-month-old twins do not have Iraqi passports. Nor they can return to Mosul, Iraq’s second-largest city, to apply for these travel documents.
Ra’ed Bahou, Catholic Near East Welfare Association’s regional director for Jordan and Iraq, told CNS that about 1,000 Iraqi Christians from the Mosul area were expected to enter Jordan under special arrangements by King Abdullah.
Caritas, the Catholic Church’s humanitarian nongovernmental aid agency, is among the organizations assisting the refugees at a Catholic facility outside Amman by providing food, water and lodging.
They are the latest wave of Iraqi refugees seeking shelter in Jordan, which is still hosting 300,000 Iraqis from the 2003 U.S.-led war. At the height of the conflict, Jordan hosted some 1.5 million Iraqis.
“Since 2003, we have been suffering,” said a refugee who identified himself as Safwan, a 43-year-old engineer. “But this is the biggest suffering yet to befall us. Never in the past 1,700 years has there been no Christian presence at all in Mosul.”
Safwan said he, his 8-months-pregnant wife and two young sons escaped Mosul twice: first, when the area came under Islamic State bombardment in June; in early July they snuck out of the city.
“We left but heard that those who fled after us unfortunately had their cars, gold, money, even baby’s pampers and milk stolen from them by the Islamic State militants,” he said.
Safwan said it was impossible to remain in Mosul with the militants imposing Islamic law, or Shariah, demanding Christians either convert to Islam, pay a “protection” tax or leave.
He said he feared his wife could be taken from him as rumors were rife of the extremists kidnapping and selling some women, both Christians and Yezidis, another religious minority fleeing for their lives.
To support Iraqi Christians under seige, please visit this page.
18 August 2014
Tags: Iraq Violence against Christians Iraqi Christians Jordan Iraqi Refugees
A demonstrator marches with crutches outside the U.S. consulate in Erbil, Iraq, on 11 August. The pope’s envoy to the region, Cardinal Fernando Filoni, said people still do not know what will become of terrorized Christians. (photo: CNS/Sahar Mansour)
Chaldean Patriarch, papal envoy appeal for international aid (Vatican Radio) Chaldean Patriarch Louis Raphael I has issued a communiqué concerning the visit of Pope Francis’ personal envoy to Iraq, Cardinal Fernando Filoni, and calling on the international organizations who “take their moral responsibilities seriously” to assist the people of Iraq…
Papal envoy to Iraq meets displaced Christians and Yazidis (Vatican Radio) Pope Francis’ personal envoy in Iraq, Cardinal Ferdinando Filoni says the displaced people he’s met during his current tour of northern Iraq are calling for immediate assistance from the international community before it’s too late…
Aleppo’s Christians in Syrian crossfire (Al Monitor) While the dire situation of Iraq’s Yazidis provoked United States military intervention against the Islamic State and nonstop media coverage, Aleppo’s Christians fear they are the war’s forgotten victims…
Fate of Gaza truce in balance as toll tops 2,000 (Daily Star Lebanon) The Gaza death toll rose over 2,000 Monday as the clock ticked towards a midnight deadline and negotiators in Cairo strove to hammer out a decisive end to weeks of bloodshed. As millions in and around Gaza enjoyed an eighth day of calm brought on by two back-to-back truce agreements, tensions were once again on the rise ahead of a new deadline ending a five-day cease-fire, which expires tonight. But there was little sign of any workable consensus emerging…
Ukrainian Orthodox Church urges gunmen in eastern Ukraine to lay down arms (Interfax) The Ukrainian Orthodox Church-Moscow Patriarchate has expressed concern about the escalation of violence in eastern Ukraine and called on members of illegal armed groups to surrender…
Egypt cracks down on human rights groups (Al Monitor) On 12 August, a special delegation from Human Rights Watch was to visit Cairo. However, Egypt’s government had other plans. The organization was to deliver a briefing alongside the release of its comprehensive report on the Egyptian security forces’ “clearance” of Rabia al Adawiya and other Muslim Brotherhood sit-ins last year that resulted in the deaths of at least 1,150 people…
14 August 2014
Tags: Syria Iraq Egypt Ukraine Gaza Strip/West Bank
An Iraqi Christian refugee rests at St. Joseph’s Church in Ain Kawa, Iraq, on 8 August. Witnesses claim refugees are dying in the crowded camps. (photo: CNS/Sahar Mansour)
Let me start with the Iraqi Christian refugees in Lebanon. I met with Chaldean Bishop Michel Kassarji today, who informed me that he has received the past few days around 190 new Chaldean families from Iraq, and it seems the Lebanese authority is granting tourist visas to Iraqis at their arrival at the Beirut airport.
He expects a major influx of Christian Iraqi refugees into Lebanon in the coming few weeks; many of the families who fled their homes are in the process of getting valid passports. Once they have passports, family members in the West secure plane tickets for them to head to Beirut. At their arrival, Bishop Kassarji provides each family (only once) with a food and hygiene package, mattresses and covers. Syriac Catholic Father Hanna Yako confirmed that some 250 Syriac Catholic families have also arrived in Lebanon from Iraq, also carrying tourist visas.
These families need basic items, such food and water, sanitary products, medicines and nursing formula. Those with chronic health problems (diabetes, heart ailments, etc.) need immediate attention.
As for the general situation of the Christians inside Iraq, I spoke with a Chaldean priest who served in a parish near Mosul, and who is visiting Beirut to see his family, who are emigrating West. Father Aram explained to us that the last wave of displacement of Christians in northern Iraq happened as follows:
Within the Chaldean Archeparchy of Mosul, which includes Chaldean Catholics of Mosul, Tal Keif and Qaramlesh, more than 2,000 families fled their homes to find refuge in the Kurdish towns of Zakho, Duhoc and Erbil.
In the Syriac Catholic Archeparchy of Mosul, which includes Mosul, Qaraqosh, Bartella and Baashiqa, more than 11,000 families were displaced to Kurdish towns. More than 9,000 of these displaced families are Syriac Catholics. The rest belong to Assyrian Church of the East or the Chaldean Catholic or Syriac Orthodox churches.
In the Chaldean eparchy of Al Qosh, which includes Al Qosh, Tal Eskef, Batnaya, Baaqoufa and Jambour villages, the ISIS militants have occupied all villages — except Al Qosh. As a matter of fact, ISIS approached the town, but didn’t occupy it yet. At present, Al Qosh is the demarcation line between the Peshmerga (Kurdish fighters) and ISIS. From this eparchy, 5,000 Chaldean families left for Kurdistan.
Together with the estimated 5,000 families who fled Mosul earlier this summer, some 23,000 Iraqi Christian families, about 120,000 people — have fled the wave of violence on the Nineveh Plain, a cradle of Christianity in Mesopotamia.
Given the large number of refugees and their great needs, our partners have urged us to help them secure up to three months’ supply of infant formula and regular milk for children, which is not included in the food packages distributed by international aid organizations thus far.
Basic medical care is also desperately needed: A team of doctors, who are volunteering their work in coordination with the local church, are pleading for basic medical equipment.
Please help us to help our brothers and sisters in need, and provide them with the basic necessities that can keep them alive.
Visit this page to learn how.
14 August 2014
Tags: Iraq Iraqi Christians Iraqi Refugees Relief Chaldean Church
Pope Francis reacts as he learns that Simone Camilli, a video journalist for The Associated Press, was killed in Gaza, as he greets media aboard the papal flight from Rome to Seoul, South Korea, on 13 August. Speaking at right is Jesuit Father Federico Lombardi, the Vatican spokesman.
(photo: CNS/Paul Haring)
The world follows the Pope wherever he goes, and news of one stricken part of the world reached him as he flew to South Korea:
Greeting reporters accompanying him to Korea 13 August, Pope Francis mourned an Italian video journalist killed earlier the same day in the Gaza Strip and urged journalists to serve as messengers of peace.
The pope listened with a bowed head and grave expression as Jesuit Father Federico Lombardi, Vatican spokesman, recounted the fate of Simone Camilli, who worked for The Associated Press.
Camilli and a freelance Palestinian translator, Ali Shehda Abu Afash, were killed along with three Palestinian policemen who were attempting to defuse unexploded ordnance left over from Israeli-Hamas fighting. Four other people, including an AP photographer, were badly injured.
Pope Francis then led the journalists in 30 seconds of silent prayer for Camilli.
“These are the consequences of war, that’s the way it is,” he said afterward.
“May your words always help unite us with the world,” the pope told about 70 journalists who accompanied him on the flight to South Korea. “I implore you, always send this message of peace, try to give a word of peace.”
14 August 2014
Displaced people fleeing violence in Sinjar, Iraqi, take refuge at Dohuk province on 7 August. (photo: CNS/Ari Jalal, Reuters)
Iraqi Christians ‘dying in crowded refugee camps’ (Catholic Herald) Iraqi Christians driven from their homes by Islamic State fighters are beginning to die in crowded camps, witnesses have claimed. Sahar Mansour, 40, who lectured in chemistry at the University of Mosul before she fled the city in June, said newborn babies, the sick and the elderly in the Ain Kawa refugee camp on the outskirts of Erbil are dying from diseases, thirst and malnutrition. The same claim was made by Chaldean Patriarch Louis Raphael I of Baghdad, who said in an 11 August statement that “death and sickness are grabbing the children and elderly people among the thousands of refugee families spread over the Kurdistan region…”
Clashes continue in Iraq as the displaced seek shelter (Vatican Radio) Clashes between Iraqi troops and Sunni militants west of Baghdad on Thursday killed at least four children. It happened as the United Nations announced its highest level of emergency for Iraq’s humanitarian crisis in the wake of the onslaught by the extremist Islamic State group. Since their blitz offensive in June, the Al Qaeda-breakaway group has overrun much of Iraq’s north and west and driven out hundreds of thousands from their homes…
Yazidis still reported trapped on mountain in northern Iraq (Washington Post) Kurdish officials and Yazidi refugees said Thursday that thousands of desperate Yazidis remain trapped on a mountain in northwestern Iraq, even as the Pentagon appeared to back away from launching a rescue mission to save them…
Coexisting: Christians open church doors to displaced Palestinians in Gaza (Al Bawaba) At the height of the displacement crisis at the beginning of August, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs estimated that only just over half of all the displaced were in U.N. shelters. The shelters, meant to hold around 500 people each, were stretched far beyond capacity and were holding an average of 2,800. It was up to ordinary Gazans to deal with the overflow, and dozens of organizations like al-Najd as well as religious institutions and ordinary people worked overtime to provide for the displaced as much as possible. The St. Porphyrios Orthodox Church in Gaza’s Old City was another crucial place of refuge for thousands of Gazans. The church provided refuge for more than 3,000 people during the worst days of the Israeli bombardment, hosting 800 in the church itself and 2,500 in shops and homes in the surrounding community…
Evacuation of refugees organized at Donetsk Gorlovka cathedral (Interfax) With the blessing of Archbishop Mitrophan of Gorlovka and Slavyansk, the Gorlovka Eparchy has organized evacuation of refuges departing from the Epiphany Cathedral of Gorlovka, the local diocese official told Interfax-Religion. Residents of Gorlovka are evacuated free of charge with the help of volunteers and donors…
Metropolitan Onufriy elected head of Ukrainian Orthodox Church-Moscow Patriarchate (RISU) The Council of Bishops of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate elected its new primate. The present Locum Tenens of the Kiev Cathedra, Metropolitan Onufriy of Chernivtsi and Bukovyna, will assume leadership. The results were announced 13 August, the same day the elections started…
14 August 2014
Tags: Iraq Gaza Strip/West Bank Iraqi Christians Iraqi Refugees Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Thursday afternoon, the Archdiocese of Québec will be holding a press conference to focus attention on the humanitarian crisis affecting Iraqi Christians. Gaétan Proulx, auxiliary bishop of Québec, will be the main speaker. He will be joined by Carl Hétu, national director for CNEWA Canada, along with Archbishop George Casmoussa, of the Syriac Catholic Church in Iraq, and representatives from other humanitarian agencies.
The event will be livestreamed at 1:30 PM ET, on Québec archdiocesan web tv. Click this link to watch. (If you have trouble viewing, it will also be available here.)
13 August 2014
Children flee violence from forces loyal to the Islamic State (ISIS) in Sinjar, Iraq, on 10 August.
(photo: CNS/Rodi Said, Reuters)
Faced with the unrelenting reports about the sufferings of Christians and other minorities in Iraq and Syria, even Christians who are friendly toward Muslims can be perplexed and ask, “Why aren’t Muslims speaking out against these atrocities?” The answer is: Muslims have been speaking out in the strongest terms, condemning the crimes against humanity committed by ISIS (or, as it is increasingly called, IS) and others in the name of Islam.
So, why do we not hear more of this?
The first reason is because Islam is not a structurally centralized religion. Unlike, for example, Catholicism, there is no one person or institution that can speak with authority for all Sunnis or even all Shiites — to say nothing of speaking for all Muslims around the world.
The second reason is that there is a huge number of newspapers in Muslim countries throughout the world. Many, if not most, of these newspapers appear in languages unfamiliar to people in the West. Sometimes, it is not a question of Muslims speaking out, but of others just not hearing. Often, the “not hearing” happens because people do not have access to sources or just do not speak the same language. But the voices are out there. And an important media monitoring group has turned up the volume, to make sure more hear them.
MEMRI (The Middle East Media Research Institute), which could never be accused of being apologetic to Islam or Muslims, has just published a “Special Dispatch,” in which it gives a platform to several significant editorials written by Muslims in important Middle Eastern newspapers — condemning the atrocities taking place in Syria and Iraq in no uncertain terms.
In a scathing July 24, 2014 editorial on the issue, the London-based Qatari daily Al-Quds Al-Arabi stated that the targeting in Mosul of Christians, who have been part of the history and culture of Iraq for centuries, is the most extensive ethnic cleansing of modern times, and a black mark upon the reputation of Islam and the Muslims. The paper went on to call on moderate Muslims to condemn these terrible actions of the “cancerous” and “terrorist” IS, lest they become complicit in a crime against humanity. It also urged them to denounce extremist fatwas, such as the one by Sudanese cleric Muhammad Al-Jazouli, who cited a hadith permitting the killing of “infidel” men, women and children. The paper mentioned that this fatwa was widely published by MEMRI (view this clip on MEMRI TV here). It should be noted that, although the newspaper called this hadith “false” and “unreliable,” it actually appears in the Abu Dawud collection and is considered authentic.
Egyptian sociologist and human rights activist Sa’d Al-Din Ibrahim wrote in his weekly column for the Egyptian daily Al-Masri Al-Yawm that the IS’s barbaric, racist and murderous treatment of Christians, unprecedented in the history of the Arab East, is reminiscent of the Nazis and Tatars, and does great harm to Islam. He called upon the Arab League to condemn the IS’s actions.
Columnist Ahmad Al-Sarraf used a scathingly sarcastic tone to express his outrage. In his column in the Kuwaiti daily Al-Qabas, he told the Christians to leave the Arab lands, because the Arabs no longer have any use for progress, civilization, tolerance or coexistence, but only for backwardness, fanaticism and violence.
Read more at the MEMRI link. There are many more critical voices out there in the Arab world. They deserve to be heard.
13 August 2014
Tags: Syria Iraq Violence against Christians Muslim Islam
A man and three children flee violence from forces loyal to the Islamic State in Sinjar, Iraq, on 10 August. (photo: CNS/Rodi Said, Reuters)
The website Aleteia has posted a comprehensive primer on the Islamic State, featuring important insight and context from — among others — CNEWA’s Elias D. Mallon, S.A., Ph.D:
ISIS or ISIL? Islamic State or Caliphate?
The bunch that’s wreaking havoc across parts of Syria and Iraq has not only caused death and destruction, they’ve caused a lot of confusion as well.
In an attempt to clear up some of that, Aleteia reached out to members of its Board of Experts and others in order to compile this primer on the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, to use one of its several names. We are grateful for the assistance of Father Elias D. Mallon, external Affairs Officer of the New York-based Catholic Near East Welfare Association; Jesuit Father Mitch Pacwa of EWTN, and William Kilpatrick, author of Christianity, Islam and Atheism: The Struggle for The Soul of The West.
1. What or who is ISIS? How did it come to be?
ISIS consists of Sunni extremists, recruited from all over the Arab-speaking world and perhaps beyond. Its origins are connected with Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, a notorious terrorist born in Jordan.
“He ultimately went to Afghanistan as a jihadi in the late 1980’s,” Father Mallon says. “He founded the Organization for Tawhid (i.e. proclaiming the unity of God) and Jihad and ultimately in 2004 brought his organization under the leadership of al-Qaeda, where he declared total war on Shi’ites.”
“The Islamic State is the group that during the Iraq War was often referred to as ‘Al-Qaeda in Iraq,’ ” says an info sheet from the Archdiocese of Toronto. “The group claims it is an independent state with claims to Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon. It was established in the early years of the Iraq War. … The group has targeted military and governments of Iraq and Syria, but has also claimed responsibility for attacks that have killed thousands of Iraqi civilians. According to a study compiled by U.S. intelligence agencies, the Islamic State has plans to seize power and turn the country into a fundamentalist Islamic state.”
Al-Zarqawi was killed by an American bomb in 2006.
“It appears that ISIS is an offshoot or development of al-Zarqawi’s al-Qaeda in Iraq,” says Father Mallon. “However, al-Qaeda has repudiated ISIS for being too indiscriminately violent and, hence, risking the loss of popular support.”
“As an offshoot from al-Qaeda, ISIS follows the theology of the Wahabi sect of Sunni Islam, which began in eastern Arabia in the 1740’s,” says Father Pacwa. “Their passion is the oneness of God and the elimination of all shirk, or association of anyone or anything with God. The early Wahabis were disgusted by the honors shown to the Prophet Muhammad at his tomb in Medina, so they completely destroyed it. … Their catechesis in Arabia emphasized the absolute oneness of God and summoned all Muslims to join them in enforcing this doctrine, or die.”
ISIS is now led by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, who declared himself “Caliph” on June 29. If you find ISIS’s constant name changes disconcerting, you’ll feel the same way about Al-Baghdadi. Originally called Ibrahim Awwad Ibrahim Ali al-Badri al-Samarra’i, al-Baghdadi took his nom de guerre after the name of the first Caliph, Abu Bakr.
“Recently he has started calling himself Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi al Husseini al-Qurayshi, the last two names being attempts to link his lineage with that of the Prophet and his tribe the Quraysh,” Father Mallon says. “If he is really descended from the Prophet, one would think that it would have been obvious in his name all along. Most recently, he is using The Commander of the Faithful Caliph Ibrahim, using the traditional and oldest title of the Caliph—Commander of the Faithful.”
2. Why do they exist?
Father Mallon outlines two reasons why ISIS exists:
Ideological: to spread Islam and Islamic rule across the lands of the classical Abassid Caliphate and further even into the Iberian Peninsula. As such, ISIS shows little understanding of the very checkered history of the Caliphate. In this, ISIS tends to be a type of romantic movement but an incredibly brutal one.
Practical: Many Sunnis in Iraq (and Syria) feel disenfranchised by either the Alawite rule of Bashar al-Assad in Damascus or the Shi’ite rule of Nouri al-Maliki in Baghdad. I think many Sunnis look upon ISIS as the only effective opposition to, especially, the regime in Baghdad. I am not sure but I suspect that the loyalty does not go much deeper.
3. What is their aim? How likely are they to be able to accomplish it?
Their aim to re-establish the Caliphate and extend Islamic religious, political and military hegemony as far as they can, says Father Mallon. “To accomplish this they are prepared to violate traditional principles of Islamic warfare.”
4. Is this a global movement?
Yes and no, says Father Mallon. “It is global in that is appeals to a broad audience of Muslims who share the romantic idea of a Caliphate in which Muslims rule over everyone. It is not a global movement in that it is probably not sustainable in a number of ways. Not the least, opposition would come from an increasing desire for democracy in many Muslim countries. Democracy is the antithesis of the historically autocratic Caliphates. In addition, Shi’ites are in principle opposed to a Sunni Caliphate ruling over them.”
He adds: “Although ISIS uses the most brutal and savage methods, it would be a serious mistake to think of it as a primitive group. It has shown itself disturbingly sophisticated in its use of mass communications and social media. There are reports of a store in Istanbul and a website on which one can purchase t-shirts with the ISIS logo as well as the head band often seen on the foreheads of ISIS combatants as well as access ISIS propaganda.
“The New York Times estimates that ISIS is the wealthiest terrorist group in the world, having access to hundreds of millions of dollars,” Father Mallon says. “Most, if not all, ISIS’s wealth comes from plundered cities, banks and individuals. It seems it has carefully avoided becoming dependent on outside sources of financing which could easily be cut off.”
Check out the Aleteia website for much more.
13 August 2014
Tags: Syria Iraq Refugees Violence against Christians Iraqi Christians
Children prepare for First Communion in Qaramlesh, Iraq, on 1 August. Islamist terrorists drove these Christian families from their homes, so their 8 August ceremony never happened. Read more about the latest from Iraq. (photo: CNS/Sahar Mansour)
13 August 2014
Tags: Iraq Children Violence against Christians Iraqi Christians Iraqi Refugees
Volunteer Iraqi Shiite militia members near Hibhib stand guard against Islamic State militants 11 August. The Vatican called on Muslim leaders to condemn the “barbarity” and “unspeakable criminal acts” of Islamic State militants in Iraq, saying a failure to do so would jeopardize the future of interreligious dialogue. (photo: CNS/EPA)
Pope urges U.N. Secretary-General to call for international action in Iraq (Vatican Radio) Pope Francis has written to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon, regarding the situation in Iraq. Dated 9 August and released today, the letter condemns the violent persecutions underway in the country, and calls on the international community to act swiftly and decisively to stop the humanitarian disaster currently taking place…
Ban Ki-moon urges countries to do more to help Iraqi civilians (U.N. News Center) United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today urged Iraqi security forces against intervening in the country’s political process where heightened tensions, coupled with the current security threat from the armed group, the Islamic State, could lead the country into even deeper crisis…
Power outages add to Aleppo’s suffering (Al Monitor) For Aleppo residents, electricity is no longer a basic requirement: Its continuous interruption has led them to gradually dispense with it. Having electricity has turned into a luxury. Many residents have even sold their electrical tools, their TV’s, washing machines and irons, among other appliances that they no longer use. As for the refrigerators, they were turned into water tanks, or even libraries, whereas microwaves became used as storage for supplies…
Israel, Palestinians pursue Gaza deal as cease-fire deadline nears (Los Angeles Times) Talks in Cairo resumed Wednesday as the three-day truce between Israel and Gaza militants was expected to expire at midnight local time, so far without an agreement. Israel’s five-member negotiating team returned from the Egyptian capital overnight following the second day of marathon discussions. They headed back out Wednesday morning for the decisive stretch of talks…
Ukraine’s Catholic leaders back military campaign (The Tablet) The head of Ukraine’s Greek Catholic Church has urged his countrymen “not to be afraid to defend their homeland” as official military chaplains began work for the first time in the country since Communist rule and Russian forces announced a major border exercise. “For the first time in the post-[Second World] war years, people need to give their lives and shed blood for their country’s independence,” said Major Archbishop Sviatoslav Shevchuk of Kiev-Halych. “But God’s power is able to extinguish any conflict and confrontation — and people who hope in God remain undefeated and can defend their country and state…”
Tags: Syria Iraq Pope Francis Ukraine United Nations